Acid

Examples of strong acids are hydrochloric acid (HCl), hydroiodic acid (HI), hydrobromic acid (HBr), perchloric acid (HClO4), nitric acid (HNO3) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). mehr

Acid

Common examples of monoprotic acids in mineral acids include hydrochloric acid (HCl) and nitric acid (HNO3). mehr

Acid

For example, nitric acid reacts with ammonia to produce ammonium nitrate, a fertilizer. mehr

Ammonia

It combines with acids to form salts; thus with hydrochloric acid it forms ammonium chloride (sal ammoniac); with nitric acid, ammonium nitrate, etc. mehr

Ammonia

Nitric acid is used for the production of fertilizers, explosives, and many organonitrogen compounds. mehr

Acid–base reaction

The first scientific concept of acids and bases was provided by Lavoisier circa 1776. Since Lavoisier's knowledge of strong acids was mainly restricted to oxoacids, such as (nitric acid) and (sulfuric acid), which tend to contain central atoms in high oxidation states surrounded by oxygen, and since he was not aware of the true composition of the hydrohalic acids (HF, HCl, HBr, and HI), he defined acids in terms of their containing "oxygen", which in fact he named from Greek words meaning "acid-former" (from the Greek οξυς ("oxys") meaning "acid" or "sharp" and γεινομαι ("geinomai") meaning "engender"). mehr

Acid rain

A common example is nitric acid produced by electric discharge in the atmosphere such as lightning. mehr

Acid rain

Nitric acid in rainwater is an important source of fixed nitrogen for plant life, and is also produced by electrical activity in the atmosphere such as lightning. mehr

Combustion

Oxidants for combustion have high oxidation potential and include atmospheric or pure oxygen, chlorine, fluorine, chlorine trifluoride, nitrous oxide and nitric acid. mehr

Catalysis

Examples include nitric acid (from ammonia), sulfuric acid (from sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide by the chamber process), terephthalic acid from p-xylene, and acrylonitrile from propane and ammonia. mehr

Cellulose

Cellulose can be assayed using a method described by Updegraff in 1969, where the fiber is dissolved in acetic and nitric acid to remove lignin, hemicellulose, and xylosans. mehr

Ester

phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid and boric acid. mehr

Film stock

Cellulose nitrate, because of its unstable chemistry, eventually breaks down, releasing nitric acid, further catalyzing the decomposition. mehr

Gold

It does not react with hydrofluoric, hydrochloric, hydrobromic, hydriodic, sulfuric, or nitric acid. mehr

Humphry Davy

His respiration of nitric oxide which may have combined with air in the mouth to form nitric acid (HNO3), Davy was able to take his own pulse as he staggered out of the laboratory and into the garden, and he described it in his notes as 'threadlike and beating with excessive quickness'. mehr

Hydrolysis

Solutions of salts such as BeCl2 or Al(NO3)3 in water are noticeably acidic; the hydrolysis can be suppressed by adding an acid such as nitric acid, making the solution more acidic. mehr

Kamacite

Thomson stumbled upon these structures in 1804 after cleaning a specimen with nitric acid he noticed geometric patterns. mehr

Lanthanum

When later adapted by Carl Auer von Welsbach for the splitting of didymium, nitric acid was used as a solvent to lower the solubility of the system. mehr

Nitrogen

Many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia, nitric acid, organic nitrates (propellants and explosives), and cyanides, contain nitrogen. mehr

Nitrogen

is an intermediate in the manufacture of nitric acid , a strong acid and a fairly strong oxidizing agent. mehr

Nitrogen

The Ostwald process, developed a few years before the Haber process, allowed large-scale production of nitric acid and nitrate from ammonia, thus freeing large-scale industrial production of nitrate explosives and weapons propellants from the need to mine nitrate salt deposits. mehr

Niobium

Niobium is attacked by hydrofluoric acid and hydrofluoric/nitric acid mixtures. mehr

Nitroglycerin

"Nitroglycerin" ("NG"), also known as "nitriglycerine", "trinitroglycerin (TNG)", "trinitroglycerine", "nitro", "glyceryl trinitrate (GTN)", or "1,2,3-trinitroxypropane", is a heavy, colorless, oily, explosive liquid most commonly produced by nitrating glycerol with white fuming nitric acid under conditions appropriate to the formation of the nitric acid ester. mehr

Nitroglycerin

The industrial manufacturing process often uses a nearly 1:1 mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid and concentrated nitric acid. This can be produced by mixing white fuming nitric acid—a quite expensive pure nitric acid in which the oxides of nitrogen have been removed, as opposed to red fuming nitric acid, which contains nitrogen oxides—and concentrated sulfuric acid. More often, this mixture is attained by the cheaper method of mixing fuming sulfuric acid, also known as oleum—sulfuric acid containing excess sulfur trioxide—and azeotropic nitric acid (consisting of about 70 percent nitric acid, with the rest being water). mehr

Nitroglycerin

The sulfuric acid produces protonated nitric acid species, which are attacked by glycerin's nucleophilic oxygen atoms. mehr

Nitroglycerin

However, if the mixture becomes too hot, it results in "runaway", a state of accelerated nitration accompanied by the destructive oxidation of organic materials by the hot nitric acid and the release of poisonous nitrogen dioxide gas at high risk of an explosion. mehr

Nitric acid

"Nitric acid" (HNO3), also known as "aqua fortis" and "spirit of niter", is a highly corrosive mineral acid. mehr

Nitric acid

Most commercially available nitric acid has a concentration of 68%. When the solution contains more than 86% HNO3, it is referred to as "fuming nitric acid". Depending on the amount of nitrogen dioxide present, fuming nitric acid is further characterized as white fuming nitric acid or red fuming nitric acid, at concentrations above 95%. mehr

Nitric acid

Nitric acid is the primary reagent used for nitration – the addition of a nitro group, typically to an organic molecule. Nitric acid is also commonly used as a strong oxidizing agent. mehr

Nitric acid

Commercially available nitric acid is an azeotrope with water at a concentration of 68% HNO3, which is the ordinary concentrated nitric acid of commerce. mehr

Nitric acid

The nitrogen dioxide (NO2) remains dissolved in the nitric acid coloring it yellow or even red at higher temperatures. While the pure acid tends to give off white fumes when exposed to air, acid with dissolved nitrogen dioxide gives off reddish-brown vapors, leading to the common name "red fuming acid" or "fuming nitric acid" – the most concentrated form of nitric acid at Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP). Nitrogen oxides (NO"x") are soluble in nitric acid. mehr

Nitric acid

A commercial grade of fuming nitric acid contains 90% HNO3 and has a density of 1.50 g/mL. mehr

Nitric acid

An "inhibited" fuming nitric acid (either IWFNA, or IRFNA) can be made by the addition of 0.6 to 0.7% hydrogen fluoride (HF). mehr

Nitric acid

Nitric acid can act as a base with respect to an acid such as sulfuric acid. mehr

Nitric acid

Nitric acid can oxidize non-active metals such as copper and silver. For example, copper reacts with dilute nitric acid at ambient temperatures with a 3:8 stoichiometry. mehr

Nitric acid

With more concentrated nitric acid, nitrogen dioxide is produced directly in a reaction with 1:4 stoichiometry. mehr

Nitric acid

Some precious metals, such as pure gold and platinum group metals do not react with nitric acid, though pure gold does react with "aqua regia", a mixture of concentrated nitric acid and hydrochloric acid. However, some less noble metals (Ag, Cu, ...) present in some gold alloys relatively poor in gold such as colored gold can be easily oxidized and dissolved by nitric acid, leading to colour changes of the gold-alloy surface. Nitric acid is used as a cheap means in jewelry shops to quickly spot low-gold alloys (< 14 carats) and to rapidly assess the gold purity. mehr

Nitric acid

Being a powerful oxidizing acid, nitric acid reacts violently with many organic materials and the reactions may be explosive. Nitration of organic compounds with nitric acid is the primary method of synthesis of many common explosives, such as nitroglycerin and trinitrotoluene (TNT). mehr

Nitric acid

Nitric acid is made by reaction of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with water. mehr

Nitric acid

Commercial grade nitric acid solutions are usually between 52% and 68% nitric acid. Production of nitric acid is via the Ostwald process, named after German chemist Wilhelm Ostwald. mehr

Nitric acid

This is subsequently absorbed in water to form nitric acid and nitric oxide. mehr

Nitric acid

Prior to the introduction of the Haber process for the production of ammonia in 1913, nitric acid was produced using the Birkeland–Eyde process, also known as the arc process. The nitric oxide was cooled and oxidized by the remaining atmospheric oxygen to nitrogen dioxide, and this was subsequently absorbed in dilute nitric acid. mehr

Nitric acid

In laboratory, nitric acid can be made by thermal decomposition of copper(II) nitrate, producing nitrogen dioxide and oxygen gases, which are then passed through water to give nitric acid. mehr

Nitric acid

The main industrial use of nitric acid is for the production of fertilizers. Nitric acid is neutralized with ammonia to give ammonium nitrate. The other main applications are for the production of explosives, nylon precursors, and specialty organic compounds.<ref name=Ullmann>Michael Thiemann, Erich Scheibler, Karl Wilhelm Wiegand, "Nitric Acid, Nitrous Acid, and Nitrogen Oxides" in Ullmann Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2005, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. mehr

Nitric acid

In elemental analysis by ICP-MS, ICP-AES, GFAA, and Flame AA, dilute nitric acid (0.5 to 5.0%) is used as a matrix compound for determining metal traces in solutions. mehr

Nitric acid

In electrochemistry, nitric acid is used as a chemical doping agent for organic semiconductors, and in purification processes for raw carbon nanotubes. mehr

Nitric acid

A solution of nitric acid, water and alcohol, Nital, is used for etching of metals to reveal the microstructure. mehr

Nitric acid

Being a strong oxidizing agent, reactions of nitric acid with compounds such as cyanides, carbides, metallic powders can be explosive and those with many organic compounds, such as turpentine, are violent and hypergolic (i.e. self-igniting). mehr

Nitronium ion

The "nitronium ion", or sometimes the "nitryl ion" (incorrect because it is not a radical), , is a generally reactive cation created by the removal of an electron from the paramagnetic nitrogen dioxide molecule, or the protonation of nitric acid. mehr

Ozone

Use of an air dryer can reduce or eliminate nitric acid formation by removing water vapor and increase ozone production. Use of an oxygen concentrator can further increase the ozone production and further reduce the risk of nitric acid formation by removing not only the water vapor, but also the bulk of the nitrogen. mehr
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