Gambler's fallacy

While the representativeness heuristic and other cognitive biases are the most commonly cited cause of the gambler's fallacy, research suggests that there may be a neurological component to it as well. mehr

Survey sampling

This often improves the representativeness of the sample by reducing sampling error. mehr

Stratified sampling

This often improves the representativeness of the sample by reducing sampling error. mehr

Stratified sampling

Randomized stratification can also be used to improve population representativeness in a study. mehr

Cognitive bias

For example, the representativeness heuristic is defined as the tendency to "judge the frequency or likelihood" of an occurrence by the extent of which the event "resembles the typical case" (Baumeister & Bushman, 2010, p. 141). The "Linda Problem" illustrates the representativeness heuristic (Tversky & Kahneman, 1983 ). The representativeness heuristic may lead to errors such as activating stereotypes and inaccurate judgements of others (Haselton et al., 2005, p. 726). mehr

Nonprobability sampling

Researchers working with the notion of purposive sampling assert that while probability methods are suitable for large-scale studies concerned with representativeness, non-probability approaches are more suitable for in-depth qualitative research in which the focus is often to understand complex social phenomena (e.g., Marshall 1996; Small 2009). mehr

Martingale (betting system)

This intuitive belief is sometimes referred to as the representativeness heuristic. mehr

Survey methodology

Since survey research is almost always based on a sample of the population, the success of the research is dependent on the representativeness of the sample with respect to a target population of interest to the researcher. mehr

Case study

A case selection that is based on representativeness will seldom be able to produce these kinds of insights. mehr

Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation

SPEC attempts to create an environment where arguments are settled by appeal to notions of technical credibility, representativeness, or the "level playing field". mehr

Regression fallacy

The logical flaw is to make predictions that expect exceptional results to continue as if they were average (see Representativeness heuristic). mehr

Peak–end rule

This model dictates that an event is not judged by the entirety of an experience, but by prototypical moments (or "snapshots") as a result of the representativeness heuristic. mehr

Automatic summarization

These algorithms model notions like diversity, coverage, information and representativeness of the summary. mehr

Fallacies of illicit transference

While fallacious, arguments that make these assumptions may be persuasive because of the representativeness heuristic. mehr

Survey research

This generalizing ability is dependent on the representativeness of the sample, as stated above. mehr


The musical examples for Cantometrics had not been chosen randomly, however, but for their representativeness, following the scholarly guidance of specialists who had studied the regions and /or supplied the audio or film clip samples. mehr

Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl

Historian John Blassingame argued at the time, however, that Jacobs' novel was not an authentic work by a former slave because it "did not conform to the guidelines of representativeness", noting that it differed from other slave narratives. mehr

Culture of ancient Rus

The peculiarities of the first "Russian" works of art, created by the "visiting" Greeks, included a magnitude and representativeness which demonstrated the ambitions of the young Russian state and its princely authority. mehr

Índice Bovespa

It's revised quarterly, in order to keep its representativeness of the volume traded and in average the components of Ibovespa represent 70% of the all the stock value traded. mehr

Snowball sampling

2. "Not Random": Snowball sampling contradicts many of the assumptions supporting conventional notions of random selection and representativeness However, Social systems are beyond researcher’s ability to recruit randomly. mehr

Kingdom of Galicia

As a reaction of the abdication of king Ferdinand VII in favour of Napoleon, the "Junta" declared itself sovereign and supreme authority of the Kingdom in June 18, 1808, during the Peninsular war, becoming so the legitimate and "de facto" government of the Kingdom until Galicia was conquered by the Napoleonic troops in 1809. At the effect of having a broader base and representativeness, it briefly admitted among its members churchmen (the bishop of Ourense) and titled noblemen. mehr

Optimism bias

People find examples that relate directly to what they are asked, resulting in representativeness heuristics. mehr

Missing data

Missing data reduce the representativeness of the sample and can therefore distort inferences about the population. mehr

The Tyee

Beers has questioned the representativeness of Vancouver media. mehr

Gap analysis (conservation)

Conservation managers or scientists can use it as a basis for providing recommendations to improve the representativeness of nature reserves or the effectiveness of protected areas so that these areas provide the best value for conserving biological diversity. mehr

Antoine Ignace Melling

This course, "focuses on a selected few masterpieces of Ottoman artistic and literary production, picked on the basis of not only their high aesthetic qualities, but also their representativeness across different genres and historical periods". mehr

Achievement test

Content validity is determined by the representativeness of the items included on the final test. mehr

Triad (environmental science)

2. Discussion of uncertainty management, data representativeness, and site closure strategies. mehr

Food sampling

Factors relevant in considering the representativeness of a sample include the homogeneity of the food, the relative sizes of the sample to be taken and the whole, the potential degree of variation of the parameter(s) in question through the whole, and the significance and intended use of the analytical result. mehr


These three villages were chosen for their authenticity, representativeness, and overall potential with regard to the criteria that had been established by the provincial authorities. mehr

Serra (Rocca Santa Maria)

These three villages were chosen for their authenticity, representativeness, and overall potential with regard to the criteria that had been established by the provincial authorities. mehr

Michael J. Saks

2. "Representativeness": Saks concluded that smaller juries were not as representative as larger juries. mehr

Chronic disease in China

The system was expanded and adjusted to improve its representativeness of China as a whole in 2004. The revised system includes 150 disease surveillance sites. mehr

Disease surveillance in China

Because participation in the network was voluntary, the data collected were biased, even after attempts were made to adjust the sample to improve national representativeness. mehr

Panel Study of Income Dynamics

As time passed, the representativeness of the original sample became more and more out of line with the overall US demographic. mehr

Inclusive Management

One potential source of confusion is that the inclusion component of the term "inclusive management" means something different from the commonplace use of inclusion to refer to the socioeconomic diversity of participants and adequacy of representation or the proportional representativeness of participation in an engagement process. mehr


In addition, with membership of trade unions shrinking in many industrialized states, the representativeness of these organizations even in the formal sector is often questioned. mehr

Exemplification theory

These judgments are considered based on two cognitive devices: the availability heuristic and the representativeness heuristic. mehr

Movimento Italiano Genitori

In the years the association has triggered many criticism on his alleged numerical representativeness on Italian population and about his points of view on sexuality issues, homosexuality and censorship. mehr

Hang Seng Index

The representativeness of the HSI can be studied by the turnover of the whole stock market and by how much its market capitalisation covers. mehr

Public Service Commission of Canada

The "Public Service Commission of Canada" (PSC) is an independent government agency that safeguards merit-based hiring, non-partisanship, representativeness (aboriginal people, visible minorities, women, and people with disabilities) and the use of both official languages (English and French) in the Canadian public service. mehr

Public Service Commission of Canada

The 2003 "Public Service Employment Act" (which came into force on December 31, 2005) emphasizes the values of merit, non-partisanship, fairness, access, transparency and representativeness. mehr

Vladimir Shlapentokh

No other expert on surveys in the USA has paid as much attention to the veracity of respondents as Shlapentokh has, developing his theories on this issue in two books published in Russian (see: The Empirical Validity of the Statistical Information in Sociological Studies 1973; The Quality of Sociological Information: Validity, Representativeness and Prognostic Potential 2006). mehr

Renata Polverini

She started reforms in terms of representativeness in the public sector and in the reorganization of social assistance services of the Trade Union. mehr

Browne Review

The Browne Review has been the subject of several criticisms related to its perceived lack of independence, lack of Parliamentary scrutiny and lack of representativeness. mehr

SCOP formalism

Membership rather than measure representativeness only measures the allegiance or inclusiveness of a conceptual instances in the category determined by the concept. mehr

L.69 Group of Developing Countries

Today, when we see the inability of the Security Council to respond in a timely manner to pressing issues of war and peace, when we see decisions of the Council being increasingly put to public scrutiny, and large sections of civil society and academia, questioning not just its representativeness but credibility, even to the extent of member states rejecting seats after getting elected, we should be seen to be constructively engaged in restoring the dignity of this premier body by reforming it to reflect contemporary realities. mehr

Extension neglect

Extension neglect is described as being caused by judgment by prototype, of which the representativeness heuristic is a special case. mehr

Aladar Imre

Participating in the Fifth Congress of the PCdR that took place near Moscow that year, he joined David Avramescu in criticising the gathering's lack of representativeness, only to be rebuffed by Bela Kun. mehr

South African labour law

Whether a trade union is entitled to organisational rights depends on the level of representativeness of the trade union in the workplace, which can be either majority representation or "sufficient" representation. mehr
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